Monday, May 23, 2016


Caernarfon Castle,
built by the enemy,
a sign of oppression,
as we spoke glowingly
in the oppressor's tongue.


Caernarfon is considered to be the sublime pinnacle, the crown jewel of subjugation, and oppression of the Welsh people by Edward 1, king of England and conqueror of Wales.
Guto’r Glyn (d. c.1493), one of the most prominent of the medieval Welsh poets, considered Caernarfon castle to be one of ‘[c]aerau Edwart Gwncwerwr’ (‘the forts of Edward the Conqueror’). And later, the antiquary Thomas Pennant (d. 1798) described Caernarfon castle bluntly as ‘the most magnificent badge of our subjection’. The magnificent castles of Edward I were therefore symbols of oppression to some, and one can well imagine that creating this feeling of intimidation was one of the primary reasons for building them in the first place. 
Forgotten Ruins? The castles of the Welsh Princes

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