Monday, November 15, 1999

BRIGHID OF NAMES: A TRIPARTITE LIFE, ii


BRIGHID OF NAMES: A TRIPARTITE LIFE

1.  Bridge- id: Bridge- it: Those eedjit Sassenach
never could wrap their thick, alien Bearla around our sweet teanga.
Once I was Bree-id, Bride of Christ, but I bridled at Bridie: undignified.
I was synonymous with God-ness far beyond the Scythian Sea.
In the Isle of the Blesséd, the tuatha called me Brigantia
and gladly I gave name to them, for were they not my children?
I was the triune Bríd, but men from the east stripped me of my sisters:
Brighid of the healing, whom midwives and mothers beseeched,
bright Brighid of the Goibniu, who fanned the forge with her sweet breath.
But I, Brighid, the anvil of poetry, wrote the ranna into the numbering of years,
and was christened Naomh Brighid for my valorous deeds.

The Daghda, the Good God of Plenitudes, was my áthair,
who was my máthair? Bóand of the Cows? Or Danú? I never knew.
I was a fussy child, drinking only bainne from the red-eared cow.
I was born at the atha between worlds, betwixt night and dawn,
neither within nor without the house, ní an theach, ní an rígh,
wed a while to Bres, a half-Fomorii from beyond the sea...
My three strong sons fell, blessed by the song of the sword.
It was I who keened the first sorrow ever to face Éiru.
I wanted them beside me, not in the land of the ever-young.
Tír na n-Óg: did they not know Cill Dara was mine own?

At Bath, Caesar called me his wise Minerva: patron of arts and crafts,
but he never knew I was also Sulis, and her sister of the lost names.
Bélsima (most brilliant I was), then, from across the sea, they came
renamed my Féis Dé, Candlemas, but I was still a woman of sudden flame.
Ah, Imbolc, the sweet milking for the lambs on the first day of Earrach.
It was I who divided the year into two lovers: Samhain and Gemredh.
In the first paragraph of paradise, I was shaper of the land, consort of kings.

2. In the year of the plagues, Cogitius and other monks scribed:
to a slave I was born, swathed in a druid’s ráth, Foughart, Meath, 445,
to the sweet land of Medbh, regal woman of honeyed thighs.
My dark father, Dubthach, sold me to another king who thought me
too worthy a wife when I gave away sword, chariot, horses, treasury...
With my swirling cloak I claimed all his land to grass the cattle of the poor.
Milk overflowed in my fields. I bettered the sheep, I satisfied the birds.
It’s true, in the mortal coil, I refused marriage, even to the filidh
who couldn’t take a joke and fled when my eye burst like a meteor.
Before battling with angels, remember the Lord is better than any poem.
The lepers and the blind loved me, for my holy wells healed their maladies.
My little speckled fish wagged his tail, cured disease, restored sight and prophecy.

Brennaín of Tra Lí, in his blue martyrdom, for seven long years, went to sea.
No one to cure my headaches, or to tell me tales of breathing leviathan islands,
how he anchored on cities of glass beneath the foam, or of ships in adrift in the sky.
Forever Navigator, he never managed to hang his wet cloak upon the sunbeams.
My jealous brother, born of two worlds between the salt water and the sea strand,
claimed the beasts of the sea loved me better than Pádraig or he. By pondering
solely on God, I gentled mad horses, and soothed the voices of the waves.
With seven sisters, I built two monasteries beneath the oaks,
three-quarters of a century later, the earth took me back into her womb
until the dubhgaill pirates came in longships from the north
I was smuggled to Dún Pádraig with himself and Colum Cille,
500 years we slept, blissfully forgotten. No separation of marrow from bone.
We had but one heart and one mind.
On the eve of Conquest, it was Maolachi who found us.

3.  Dear Cormac in his Glossary penned: I usurped “ a goddess
whom the bards worshipped, for great and noble was her perfection.”
He was right, you know, my name was synonymous with Goddess.
19 of my cailleacha kept my fires lit with their breath until the 1200th year.
That Welsh monk Gerald scryed there was a matter of a hedge no man could cross.
Plenty came to visit. The only thing that drove them mad was their fear of desire.
Hairy-psalmed men moved by soft Latin. Three sons: and they claimed me a virgin!
That’s why I sent the kestrel to the spires of Kildare when her breeding was done.
And that bit about the nuns: As if I needed reminding to mind my own fire!
He never recognized me as his St. Ffraid of Wales, Angli-land, and beyond.

It wasn’t Ibor who conferred me to the veil,
it was Mel, so intoxicated by my presence so near,
that he read the ritual for ordaining a bishop over me.
Second only to Ticfa Pádraig; I kept my monks in food and beer.
Silly things drank my bath water from Maundy Thursday to Low Sunday
before they realized it wasn’t ale. They, who called me Mary of the Gael!
Everything I put my hand to received a threefold increase.
Once I fed the dog the bishop’s dinner; meat was back on the bone by supper.
The multitudes I fed from that same haunch! Go leor: plenty and emough.
But a sleighty fox stole the bone. I sent him packing to a king’s court
to beg for tricks like a hound a year and a day. To every dog its bone...
As a child, my hands charmed three yields of milk from my cows,
and the butter! I filled the dairy with it to impress a stranger.
But to the vain woman bearing me gifts of pride-apples,
I gave her fruitless trees as a token of my gratitude.

How I miss my bishop, Conleth, the metal-smith, falsely accused
of fathering a child, but it was Brón, (sorrow’s patronage abused.)
I bade the newborn speak the name of his father .Brón Trogain, he mewed.
Did I not reside over His birth, did my sisters not nurse the Holy Child,
he who was to come, God, the Son and the Father, all in one,
who was three in one, and one in three, like my sisters Bríd and me?

Know you that at the red hand of Ireland
I have been resurrected for the third age, a nameless woman,
reborn in the fire of the last phrase of the millennium,
while soldiers slouching on street corners, defend blood faith,
and the alien Bearla is now our sweet foreign tongue.
In it, the Nobel poet said to me: Read the hand, read the hand...


The Ides of Samhain, 1999
Berkeley, CA

Friday, November 12, 1999

SOURCE SYNOPSES ON BRIGID AS GODDESS & SAINT


SOURCE SYNOPSES ON BRIGID AS GODDESS & SAINT (bibl at end of each synopsis)
(parenthetical notes are mine; not text’s)

BRIGID/BRIGIT  A triune goddess of:
1) healing                             therapy           
2) blacksmiths                            fire
3) fertility & poetry                    light       poets/seers  divination, prophecy

(also Patron saint of travelers, domestic arts;weaving & dyeing, agricultural abundance; the kitchen (bread), brewing;  arts/crafts learning; protectress of women; patroness of midwives/childbirth (water?), )

Mythological aspects: A daughter of the Dagda (The Good God ....Q is Boand (cow goddess) her mother??? her tow sisters were also called Brigid, in other words she was a triune goddess: three in one)
she was married a while to Bres, the half-Fomorii ruler of the Dé Danann. By Tuireann she had 3 sons: Brían, Iuchar, Iuchara (twins+ 1, a mythic motif. at the death of her son, uttered the first cry of sorrow in Ireland.)

She appears as the equivalent to Dana, mother of all gods.
Counterpart in Brythonic Celtic (Brigantia; Totem of the Brigantes) and Gaulish (Brigindo) cultures. Her name seems to represent “High One”
(Exaulted One, Fiery Arrow...Brig means god. cognate with brihati in Vedic Sanskrit, correspondent in Britain with Briganti latinized Brigantia,)

Festival, Imbolg/Imbolc, Feb. 1, one of four great Celtic feasts. Pastoral festival assoc. w/the milk of the ewes and 1st day of spring.
(NOTE St. Brigid’s Night divided the year into 2 seasons winter/summer ....(from A& B Rees book, Celtic Heritage) Gemredh (winter half) Samhain (summer half)  Earrach (spring or Oimelk/Imbolg or Imbolc -bolg+stomach/bag...ime is butter  butterbag??? cream bag/stomach? bainne = milk in Irish. If she’s the Indo European Cow Goddess, this all ties in. Cow, serpent, bird, cockerel assoc. w Brigid)

4. 5th C. SAINT Mary of the Gaels; her tradition is often confused with the goddess. Attribute;  Icon: cow lying at her feet, 

Born in Faughart in AD 540 and died in Kildare in 523; (note c.453 -523;
daughter of a slavegirl and Dubthach...a chieftain (or possibly a druid)
either sent to a druid or was born in a druid’s house...
She was baptized and returned to her father’s house, refusing offers of marriage (from a poet, no less), took the vow of virginity & w/ 7 companions founded Kildare, one of the greatest monasteries in Ire....probably an important pagan site  kil= cell and dare= oak; Classical references state the druids worship in oak groves; it’s possible she was a druidess.. On the flat plains of what came to be Cell Dara were certain areas sacred to the fertility goddess Bríg, where her priestesses kept an eternal fire, The plains were left untilled  even though fertile, a sign that the goddess owned them.  Isle of the Saints: Monastic Settlement and Christian Community in Early Ireland, Lisa Bitel, Cornell  University Press, 1990   p 44)

Numerous accounts of her life were written soon after her death and her cult became widespread.. Her cult is second only to St. Patrick in Ireland (a paradox, if she was real, with 2nd generation monk-saints, a real misogyny seems to arise: St. Kevin disliked women as did Kentigern, and Columba, there’s even a tale attached to Brendan’s fear of women...a new element under Christian : women lost many legal rights with the introduction of Christianity)

Many traditions and ceremonies assoc. w/ her predecessor, the goddess. Her Feast Day Feb. 1.  (Candlemas...interesting fire imagery here, also one description of her from the Hebrides has her head haloed with candles)
“RAS MacAlister put forward the theory that the saint was actually a priestess of Brigid who converted to Christianity. In most accounts of her life, her father is named as Dubhthach, a druid.”

p 50, A Dictionary of Irish Mythology, Peter Berresford Ellis, Oxford University Press, GB 1987.
---------------

BRIGID (Brigit, Bridget, Bride)  d 525 Abbess of Kildare. Historical facts about her extremely rare; some scholars doubt her existence. Lives mainly anecdotes and miracle stories, deeply rooted in Irish pagan folklore.
Born near Uinmeras, 5 miles from Kildare, parents of humble origin, baptized by Patrick, became a nun at an early age, founded a monastery at Kildare and contributed notably to the spread of Christianity. Her miracles stories portray her as a personification of compassion. Themes: multiplication of food, butter to the poor, and her bathwater into beer!(kinky!!!)to satisfy the thirst of unexpected cleric visitors. Even her cows gave milk three times the same day to enable some bishops to have enough to drink.

Other legends personify her with the Blessed Virgin (Mary of the Gael) based on a vision of Bishop Ibor the night before an assembly addressed by Brigid. When she arrived she corresponded exactly to his vision of Mary. Ibor also supposed to have consecrated her
(or perhaps Mel “When Brigid went to Bishop Mel to receive the veil of a nun, he became so ‘intoxicated’ with the sanctity in his presence that he read the ritual for ordaining a bishop over her. Thus, Brigid is unique among Irish holy women in being a fully accredited bishop.” (Conversing With Angels & Ancients: Literary Myths of Medieval Ireland,  Joseph Nage (Cornell 1997)  p233 ) 

ODS  author David Hugh Farmer states: claims of bishops and abbesses of Kildare supreme over others in the whole of Ireland were a principal reason for the existence of even the earliest
Lives, such as that by Cogitosus *(c. 650).  (Ultan of Ard Braccan, d. 657, also wrote a Life). Lives translated into Old French, Middle English, German (some 7 Lives written??? )

(Cogitosus maintains that Brigid’s patruchia  stretched throughout Ireland....Brigid remains so colorless  as an historical person that one doubts whether she had lived as a saint at all.” Medieval Ireland: The Enduring Tradition, Michael Richter, St. Martin’s Press 1995   p78

(In Conversing With Angels & Ancients: Literary Myths of Medieval Ireland, UCLA Celtic Studies scholar Joseph Nage writes; “There is no serviceable modern edition of Cogitosus’s text (in Louvain)” page 234)

(“The cult of Brigid is the most spectacular example of the transformations effected by the medieval Irish hagiographic tradition, whereby pre-Christian divinity or divine trait becomes Christian saint or typical saintly behavior. There are incontrovertible references in medieval Irish literature to a pre-Christian divinity Bríg or Bright, who is obviously the inspiration for much of the cult of St.  Brigid.”  Conversing With Angels & Ancients: Literary Myths of Medieval Ireland,  Nage,  p 233)

Unusual Double monastery of Kildare Brigid and Bishop Conleth
(it’s significant that he’s a metalsmith, in one story, he’s accused of fathering a child and Brigid makes the child point out its father, in another story the cleric is Brón (sorrow), Another more repressed story where she gets rid of a nun’s fetus  “public determination of paternity...is at the heart of the story pattern.”  Conversing With Angels & Ancients: Literary Myths of Medieval Ireland,  Nage,  p231)

NOTE also suggested that the double monastery was w/ Patrick/ or her brother)
Her cult is second only to Patrick. Popular in England (19 ancient churches dedicated to her: St. Bride’s Fleet St.)  and in Wales: as many churches (NOTE numerology: 19 churches, 19 nuns) St. Bride’s Day, Dyfed emphasizes strong links w/ Irish Christianity. Many places in Wales called Llansantaffraid (=St Bride’s Church ...llan  santa FFraid: Welsh for Brigit). Popular on Continent, esp. in Alsace, Flanders & Portugal. (Also France & Italy...what’s amazing about this is that women didn’t travel, so monks had to spread the word. if she was indeed a bishop as Nage suggests, it would explain her power and widespread cult)
 Brigid is patron of poets, blacksmiths and healers. Icon: cow lying at her feet, which recalls her phase as a nun-cowgirl.
A relic of her shoe in Nat Museum, Dublin (NOTE: she is often paired w/ Lugh...patron of shoemakers...get back to that later)
folkloric elements important in her Lives and cult. Gerald of Wales d.c. 1200 (See orig. text, incl. & use in paper) described a fire kept burning continuously  at her shrine for centuries, tended by 20 (19) nuns of her community. The fire was surrounded by a circle of bushes, which no man was allowed to enter.
Brig means valor or might, personified as a goddess  whose fire cult took place on Feb. 1; her translation to June 10. another feast on march 24 commemorated the discovery  by St. Malachy in 1185 of the supposed bodies of Patrick, Columba and Brigid at Downpatrick.

from p 50 Oxford Dictionary of Saints, David Hugh Farmer, ed. Oxford University Press, GB 1978. (he cites Plummer, among others) take tidbits from his intro on Celtic saints???
-----------------

(Note Morgan uses similar verbiage as Oxford Dictionary) Brigid...gathered together women form all over Ireland into protected monastic communities. She was legendary in her abilities to multiply food: turning bath water into beer & milking her cows successfully 3 x day (he misunderstands info: 3 x the yield, not 3 x day) agriculturist: cowherd, shepherd, butter churner, baker, corn reaper (add more from Life)
assoc. w/ Brig whose cult was celebrated w/ a ceremony of fire. “Brigid has experienced a relatively recent insurgence of popularity due to the interest of contemporary feminist and environmental groups, as well as the growing women’s movement in Ireland.”

p 29 Saints: a Visual Almanac of the Virtuous, Pure, Praiseworthy, and Good, Chronicle Books, Tom Morgan, San Francisco 1994
------------------------------

Brigid: Caesar includes her among major deities of Gaul (Interpretatio Romana) as Minerva, patron of the arts and crafts, but Celtic deities were larger and more complex, often assoc. w Mercury & Vulcan. Her cult strong among the lower social orders, hence the patron of domestic arts;weaving & dyeing. Arts & healing, honored at Bath (Aquae Sulis) with Sulis.
Nearest counterpart, Irish Brighid in Cormac’s Glossary (c.8th c) states that she was the patron of filidhecht (poetry and learning, divination and prophecy-worshipped by the filidh
Daughter of the Daghda, her two sisters also named Brighid.: patrons of healing and smithing.
p 34  “Among all the Irish a goddess used to be called Brighid...her name used to be synonymous for Goddess.” Cormac’s Glossary (c.8th c)
slight historical evidence for her Christian namesake. “She usurped the role of the goddess and much of her mythological tradition”
in the saint;s Lives, she;s assoc. with livestock and produce of the earth
born at sunrise  neither within nor without the house (between worlds like Cuchulainn at the ford),fed milk from a white, red-eared cow (supernatural connection). (while in conversation w/ St. Brendan) she hangs her wet cloak on the rays of the sun (Lugh/Griannos connection??) her house ablaze when she entered.
Gerald of Wales quote she and 19 nuns took turns guarding the perpetual sacred fire surrounded by a hedge, no men could enter (NOTE add Columba story of the man who went mad who crossed the threshold of bushes)

Solinus 3rd c mentioned Minerva;s sanctuary in Britain contained a perpetual fire. Minerva’s epithet: Bélsima (most brilliant) Brigid: The Exalted one; cognate with brihati in Vedic Sanskrit, correspondent in Britain with Briganti latinized Brigantia, tutelary goddess of the Brigantes She gives her name to rivers: Brent in England, Braint in Wales and Brighid in Ireland.
no clear distinction bet goddess and saint. Kildare was probably an important pagan site, Brigid was not a missionary saint, nor widely traveled (though chariot stories abound). dedications to her throughout Celtdom

p 93 (compare w the Hag of Beare....re sovereignty) mother goddess, shaper of the land, consort of kings  “The composite legend of goddess and saint connected her to...learning, craftsmanship, healing; ,,,childbirth and animal abundance....predominantly pacific concerns.” War: she intervenes for Leinstermen as a tutelary goddess concerned  with political and economic well being. A territorial goddess of the land assoc. w sacral kingship. Land should be prosperous and inviolate under his rule; only a legitimate spouse of the goddess personified

p 132 ...the notion of sovereignty...abundant evidence that symbolism and function of both myth and ritual, still clearly perceived pagan traditions and cults thrived and flourished...under the mantle of the church...spurious seal of respectability, pagan deities canonized and assimilated.

pp 32-4; 93, 132  Celtic Mythology, Proinsius MacCana, Peder Bedrick Books, 1983
-----------------

p 53 springs and sacred wells assoc. with divine cults of healing, Brigid, Coventina
p54 Celtic Festivals 4 seasonal religious festivals  mythic tradition, farming year Imbolc Feb. 1-2 (lactation of ewes aka Oimelk) linked with Brigid (St. Brigid’s Night/Candlemas) a multifunctional goddess who protected women in childbirth who presided over the ale harvest; assoc. w poetry and prophecy
p65 Brigid born in a druid’s household
p66 Brigid patron goddess of seers, an expert in divination, prophecy, learning & poetry

p 53, 54, 65, 66  Celtic Myths, Miranda Green, British Museum Press/Univ. of Texas, 1993
--------------

p 78 Matres, triple goddess assoc. w food loaves fishes suckling infant and dog at feet (dog=abundance, Brigid story where she feeds the dog the bishop’s dinner and the meat is magically restored--abundance) (portrayed w cow resting at her feet)
“Triplism a basic phenomenon of Celtic religion...mother goddesses abound...a type  of Celtic divinity...and the triadic form appeared to have played an important role in her worship and cult expression.” three headed goddesses...mercury was triple phallused (Welsh saint had three breasts).

p 101  ...native /fertility goddess mates with mortal sovereign to ensure continued prosperity of Ireland.” The idea of Triplism ethnically important. War also an important aspect of fertility symbolism. “Irish fertility goddesses combine features of war, maternity, youth, age, monstrosity, always part of a fundamental life/death protective symbolism.”
p 150  Healing cult of sacred springs   votive offerings, replicas of heads, organs, legs, offered to the goddess Blindness, arthritis, goiter, hernia clearly represented. Breasts, genitals (archaeological evidence in Britain and on the continent)  regenerative powers of water, a kind of fertility motif
p 153         Epona, Apollo/belenus, bricta 7 Luxouvious    couples who was Brigid’s?
154 Coventina counterpart? w/ sulis minerva?

pp 78, 85, 101, 150, 153, 154  Gods of the Celts, Miranda Green, Sutton Publishing, Ltd. 1986
--------------------

“The abundance of cow imagery reinforces the dependence of Ireland upon cattle. The goddess Brigid was reared on the milk of an otherworld cow.”

pp184-5  Animals in Celtic Life and Myth, Miranda Green, Routhledge NY 1992
---------------

p 20 threefold goddess o light/fire/healing; worshipped at a fire festival Feb. 2 called brigantia or Imbolc

Cormac’s Glossary (9th c) the bishop wrote: “A goddess whom the bards worshipped, for very great and noble was her perfection. Her sisters were Brigid, the woman of healing, and Brigid, the smith-woman.” when Christianity replaced polytheism, ...(did) a priestess-guardian of the shrine became identified mythically with the goddess (use Giraldus’ description of the sacred fires like the Vestal Virgins of Rome)
“Until 1220, a perpetual fire, tended by 19 nuns, burnt in a shrine near her church at Kildare. ..no bellows were used to keep the fire burning, only the breath of women.... there were attempts to rekindle it in the 1990’s”

St. Brigid the epitome of kindness and charity: assisting and feeding the poor, freeing slaves, interceding on behalf of the unfortunate.

p21  Story of her father beating a servant, she stopped him “‘Would to God you were always here to protect us from the Master’s violence,’ a servant told her. Because of this, St. Brigid is the protectress of women.” Wild geese and ducks came to her for caresses, foxes...

Famous for her ale (from bathwater?) “...on one occasion she supplied 17 churches in Meath with ale from Maundy Thursday to Low Sunday.”

under the name of St. Ffraid, Brighd was a popular saint in Wales
travelers said this prayer; “St. Ffraid bless us on our journey.”
she was sometimes confused w/ Mary. St. Broccan called Brigid “The one-mother of the Great King’s son,  wrote a hymn; Brigid, mother of my king,/ of the Kingdom of Heaven,/ Best was she born.”

Three was more than one St. Brighd, who were disciples, or former devotees of the Goddess. “In Ireland, at Candlemas, it is the custom for people to make special St. Brigid crosses out of rushes, The rushes must be pulled up, not cut on St. Brighd’s Eve., and must be woven from left to right, Then the Brigid’s Cross is set above the door, as a sacred protection for the house, and left there until the next year, when it is replaced by a new one. Traditionally Brigid is welcomed back at her festival by rekindling the hearth fire after the house has been spring-cleaned.”

pp 20, 22  The Celtic Saints, Nigel Pennick, Bridgewater Book Co., Ltd., GB 1997.
------------
misc notes:


Synopses of L Gregory’s collection: some 20 tales of Brigid which seem to incorporate most of the earlier Lives themes, some are barely recognizable and some are skeletal remains of the earlier miracles; most have interesting accretions that include many aspects of the heroic tradition; especially the supernatural signposts surrounding her birth She was born at sunrise (another tale has her born half way between day and night) on the first day of spring (between the 2 halves of the year) in a druid’s house...she drank the milk of a white, red-earred cow (which is her totemic animal), everything she put her hand to used to increase, feeding a dog (another totemic animal)

Monday, November 1, 1999

Dark dream


Last night I dreamed I was choking and so I coughed until the phlegm lined my throat, but it was the roots of my tongue come loose from its bright moorings leaving me mute, intestate. My sphincter having reversed itself so that my entrails slowly bled a rich dark blood, devoid of oxygen. I'm like a sea cucumber spilling my guts at the first sign of danger. Others tried to stop the dam to no avail. Someone suggests a doctor to shove my entrails back in, another tries to realign my tongue. A child pulls the tampon that short up the bleeding. And my old augury spills to the ground unread.

11/99
added 9/17

AT UC BERKELEY


Young students surfing the standing waves
of buckle pavement
receive a momentary glimpses of knowledge.
Wind teases the leaves toward the ground.
If I were young, instead of an infantile 46,
always late for classes, late for middle age…
In less than a month I will be 47, nearer to 50.
Students mistake me for 30-something,
I guess I should be flattered,
though the accident left me a legacy
of gray strands of wisdom.
A negative badge in a youth culture.
A girl on a skateboard breaks the mold.
I would've done that if I had been born later.
Instead, I begin to notice the first signs:
this is how it begins; shifting over the drivers seat,
my stiffness slowing me down, imperceptibly at first,
soon it will increase, then escalate,
and though I shore up the ramparts of memory
with infrastructures of history, classic middle age
clashes with druidical sacrifice. I wonder why bother
when I care so little. Late at night I contemplate
the image of my father's 38 caliber pistol
when nothing else will sustain me, it's a cold comfort.
But doubting both my sincerity and my conviction,
it remains buried in the file cabinet
in a cabin far from home.

11/99
added 9/17

Tuesday, October 26, 1999

Croagh Patrick HEALY, "The Life and Writings of St. Patrick" (Dublin, 1905)


Croagh Patrick

A mountain looking out on the Atlantic ocean from the southern shore of Clew Bay, in the County Mayo, called "the Sinai of Ireland." In pagan times it was known as Cruachan Aigli. It rises in a perfect cone to a height of 2510 feet. The account given below is taken from sources that post-date the saint's death by three hundred years. There are, however, good reasons to believe that the traditions they embody are genuine, St. Patrick was careworn and fatigued when he came to this remote part of the country. He longed to retire for a while to refresh his soul in solitude, and for that purpose on the Saturday before Ash Wednesday in the year 441, he betook himself to the mountain top. Here he spent the days of Lent, chastising his body with fasts, pouring out his heart to God, and entreating Him with prolonged importunity and with tears that the Faith may not fail in the land of Erin. The "Book of Armagh mentions that God summoned all the saints of Erin, past, present and future, to appear before their father in the Faith to comfort him with a vision of the teeming harvest his labours would produce, and to join him in blessing their kinsmen and their country. The "Tripartite Life" relates that when Patrick was on Cruachan Aigli in 441, word was brought to him that a new pope ruled the Church in Rome. The new pope was St. Leo the Great, who was consecrated on the 29th of September, 440. Patrick, as soon as he heard it, dispatched one of his disciples named Munis to bear his filial homage to the Vicar of Christ, to render an account of his labours and his teaching, and to beg a blessing for the infant church in Ireland. The 'Annals of Clonmacnoise" relate that Munis came back from Rome bearing sacred relics which the pope had given him for the altars that Patrick was erecting every where through the country. 'I'he same event is briefly referred to in tile "Annals of Ulster", under date of 441: "Leo ordained forty-second bishop of the Church of Rome; and Patrick the bishop was approved in the Catholic Faith". It adds a special glory to Croagh Patrick that its first tribute of homage from the Irish Church to the Chair of Peter was sent from its hoary summit. From that sacred spot on Holy Saturday, Patrick with outstretched hands solemnly blessed the men of Erin that they might cling to the Faith, and the land of Erin that no poisonous reptile might infest it. Then, refreshed with divine grace and comforted with the assurance that his labours would fructify forever, he came down from the mountain to celebrate Easter with the little flock he had left at Aughagower.

From the days of the saint himself pilgrims began to do penance oil his holy mountain. References to them are found in many pages of the annals of the country. It is recorded that in the year 1113, on the night of tile 17th of March, during a thunderstorm, thirty of the pilgrims perished on the summit. The "Annals of Boyle" relate that Hugh O'Connor, King of Connaught, who came to the throne in the year 1225, cut off the hands and the feet of an outlaw who dared to molest a pilgrim on his way to Croagh Patrick. The following document of Eugene IV, dated. 28 September, 1432, shows how this ancient pilgrimage was recognized and honored in Rome. "A relaxation of two years and two quarantines of enjoined penance, under the usual conditions, to those penitents who visit and give alms for the repair of the chapel of St. Patrick, on the mountain which is called Croagh Patrick whither resorts a great multitude of persons to venerate St. Patrick the Sunday before the feast of St. Peter's Chains" (Calendar etc., of Papal Registers, Vol. IV). From St. Patrick's own time there had been some sort of a little chapel on the summit.

The "Tripartite Life" relates that, the apostle himself celebrated Mass on the mountain, from which we infer that he had an altar and a place to shelter it. For several centuries the Archbishops of Armagh laid claim to the chapel on the grounds that it was founded by St. Patrick and that they were his successors; but the Archbishops of Tuam contended that it belonged to their jurisdiction. Finally, Pope Honorius III On the 30th of July, 1216 assigned it to the Archbishop of Tuam (Calendar Pap. Reg., Vol. 1). But in penal times when Murrisk Abbey at the mountain's base was dismantled, the venerable relic on the summit was demolished. Still the pilgrims never ceased to go there. It was not, however, till 1905 that the chapel on the heights was rebuilt, and then on the 30th of July, Archbishop Healy dedicated it to St. Patrick in the presence of many pilgrims. The day of annual pilgrimage from time immemorial had been the last Sunday in July. On that day about twenty Masses are celebrated within the little chapel while often there have been more than 20,000 persons kneeling without.


HEALY, "The Life and Writings of St. Patrick" (Dublin, 1905); BURY, "St. Patrick, His Place in History" (London, 1905); MORBURY, "St. Patrick, Apostle of Ireland" (London, 1900); FLEMING, "Life of St. Patrick" (London, 1905); THURSTON, in "The Month" (Nov., 1905); MORAN in "The Irish Theological Quarterly" (April, 1907).



MICHAEL MACDONALD
Transcribed by John Looby
Dedicated to Padre Patricio Mundy O'Toman de Mollendo, Peru
The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV
Copyright © 1908 by Robert Appleton Company
Online Edition Copyright © 1999 by Kevin Knight
Nihil Obstat. Remy Lafort, Censor
Imprimatur. +John M. Farley, Archbishop of New York


THE CASE OF THE DISAPPEARING FILES
(I'm posting many of these as the electronic file is going bad and I'm losing chunks of text on many files. Posting them on the blog, strips them of old formatting, and may save them. They were collected during the early days of the internet. If I can find a source, I'll add annotation. Or take them down. But I'd like to have one last read through before I kill them off. MH 11/2015)

Saturday, October 16, 1999

The Rule of the Celi De as given by Saint Maelruain of Tallaght


The Rule of the Celi De
as given by Saint Maelruain of Tallaght

Translated by Edward Gwynn with minor corrections by Fr. Kristopher Dowling, S.S.B.

1.The Beati of the refectory is sung standing, and thereafter the Magnificat and Ego vero and other canticles.

2.It is usual to make a brew of thick milk, with honey added on the eves of the chief festivals, namely, Christmas and the two Easters. It is not lawful to make a feast or drink beer on these nights, because of going to Communion the next day.

3.On the Sundays of Great Lent a draught of milk is allowed to those undergoing strict penance. A selann at night is, however, not forbidden on these Sundays. Penitents get no butter before or after, but only on Saint Patrick's Day, and further, when this feast falls on a Friday or Wednesday, a draught of milk is what is taken on it. On a Sunday, or on a festal day if it falls otherwise than on a fast-day, a selann (i.e. a half-quantity) is taken. Of bread the Celi De allow no increase, even on the festivals, but only of drink and of condiment and other things.

4.If there chance to be any kale, the quantum of bread is not diminished, because they regard kale as a condiment, and it is dressed with milk, not butter. As for a piece of fish, or a little biestings or cheese, or a hard boiled egg or apples, none of these things diminish the quantum of bread, so long as not more than a little of any of them is eaten, nor all of them together. Of apples, five or six along with the bread are enough, if they are large; while if they are small, twelve are sufficient.

5.Three or four heads of leeks are allowed. Curds and whey are not eaten by them, but are used to make cheese. Flummery is made for them, and is not forbidden, provided that no rennet is put into it. The reason why it is not forbidden may be that it counts as bread. Whey of curds is not drunk alone, but is mixed with small curds as well.

6.The relaxation at Easter permits eggs and lard and the flesh of deer and wild swine.

7.It is usual to lay additional penance on cooks and milkers and scullions on account of spilling the produce, both milk and corn.

8.Ye may have flesh meats in Great Lent , when other things are scarce, yet unless lives are in danger, it is better to keep the fast.

9.On principal feast-days which fall on a Thursday or Tuesday outside Lent a half-selann is allowed, with a bochtan (lit: pauper i.e.: small amount) of beer or whey-water. If, however, a sip of whey-water or a goblet of beer is not to be had, then a small mess of gruel is made instead, that is, a quarter ration. When there chances to be a goblet of beer, it is not drunk at a draught, though they may be thirsty, but in sips, because these quench thirst, and thou hast not less sense of pleasure from them in thy drink.

10. No selann of butter is made, but instead of them a draught of whey-water is taken on the evening of a Monday or Wednesday or Friday or Saturday, even outside of Lent , or on a principal feast-day; but the feast-day which comes on a Monday is transferred to Tuesday, on which comes on Wednesday is transferred to Thursday, and one which comes on a Friday is transferred to the Tuesday following.

11.To a draught on new milk, if there be no other milk [mixed with it], a fourth part of water is added.

12.With the Celi De, castigation is not inflicted on a man by himself, but by some one else; and it is administered between Epiphany [and Easter], and between Low Sunday and Christmas Day following.

13.He that goes for the first time to midnight Mass [on Easter Eve] receives only the Bread and not the Cup, and he does not go again until the end of the year. He goes again to midnight Mass the year after, and receives the Bread of Easter on the morrow. The third time, he goes to midnight Mass and receives the Bread at Easter and on Christmas Day. The fourth time, he goes at Christmas and at the two Easters and at Pentecost. In the fifth year, he goes at the high festivals, and also after every forty nights. In the sixth year at the end of each month. In the seventh year, at the end of every fortnight. After seven years, he goes every Sunday.

14. The Our Father and Deus in adiutorium as far as festina are recited first facing east, with both hands raised to heaven and making the sign of the Cross with thy right hand: then thus similarly facing each quarter, downward and upward . This they call the Shrine of Piety; but first a Cross-Vigil is made, and the name of this is the Corslet of Devotion.

15. When anyone fails to go to Communion on a Sunday, he goes on the Thursday following, because to wait until the next Sunday would be too long a delay for one who goes to Communion regularly every Sunday: for these two days are always specially observed by them for attending Mass.

16. Further, it is not necessary to put off minor confessions of evil thoughts and faults of idleness and bitter words and anger and so forth until Sunday, but they should be confessed immediately as they are committed.

17. He that makes confession to a soul-friend, if he does penance as he directs, need not confess to another soul-friend, excepting such sins as he may subsequently commit.

18.Frequent confession, however, does not profit, if the transgression be also frequent.

19.On Maundy Thursday no selann is made, except a draught of milk or a goblet of beer and, it may be, a spoonful of honey, for this is usual on solemn days and high festivals, without a vigil or castigation being imposed as punishment. Whey-water and bread are the diet for this day: a sermon is preached, and then dinner in the afternoon.

20.At the washing of the feet the Beati is recited as long as the washing lasts. After that comes the Sermon on the Washing.

21.When intercession is made for any one at the celebration of Vespers, his Baptismal name is used.

22.When the Psalms are recited, one division is said standing and the next sitting, because when they remain seated, it begets sleep: while if they remain too long standing, it is wearisome.

23.Twelve repetitions of the Beati are a substitute for the hundred and fifty Psalms.

24.A mess of gruel is allowed to penitents on festivals and on Sundays. and they have no exemption from vigils, except for one evening of very principal festival between Easter and Pentecost, and on Tuesday and Thursday between Christmas and Epiphany.

25.He that regularly abstains from flesh takes a small particle at Easter, as a precaution against the occurrence of dearth or famine during the year; for he that does not relax on Easter Day has no opportunity to do so till the following Easter.

26.The priest who falls away from his Orders may not offer the Sacrifice of the Mass thereafter, even though he do penance, since it is not admissible for a man without Orders to offer it.

27.When a chief festival falls on a Saturday, if it be outside Lent , the evening vigil is excused. If, however, it comes on a Wednesday or Friday or Monday, the indulgence is transferred to Tuesday, Thursday or Saturday.

28.Irksome, truly, is the matter of soul-friendship, because if the proper remedy is prescribed, it is more often violated than fulfilled: while if the soul-friend does not prescribe it, liability falls upon him; for there are many who deem it sufficient to make confession without doing penance. So it is better for the soul-friend to admonish them of what is profitable for them, even though he does not demand confessions.

29.Recourse may be had, if necessary, to another soul-friend, on obtaining leave from the original soul-friend.

30.With the Celi De it is not the practice to sleep in the oratory. Their practice is that two of them should remain in the oratory until Midnight, and recite the hundred and fifty Psalms: they dine at Nones and sleep until night, and sleep [again] from Midnight till Matins. Two others then remain from Midnight till Matins, and they also recite the hundred and fifty Psalms, and then sleep until Terce and say the office of Terce in company with all the brethren.

31.It is the practice of the Celi De that while they are at dinner one of them reads aloud the Gospels and the Rule and miracles of Saints, to the end that their minds may be set on God, not on the meal: and the man who preaches at that time has his dinner in the afternoon, and in the course of the [next] day they are questioned severally about the subject of the sermon, to see whether their minds were occupied with in on [the previous] night or not.

32.He that has not attended Mass on Sunday must recite fifty [Psalms], standing, in a closed house, with his eyes signed with the Cross: this is the price he pays for the Mass. A hundred genuflections and a Cross-Vigil, with the Beati, discharge his obligation.

33.However much a man may suffer from thirst, he may not take a drink before Midnight. He may drink between Midnight and the office at bedtime.

34.If thou art angry with a servant, and there is no cursing and abuse, thou must first receive a hundred blows on the hands, and [also] pass that night on bread and water.

35.It is not lawful for a Celi De to drink anything after making water.

36.All Maelruain's community keeps a fast once a month, namely, half rations of bread and half rations of whey-water.

37.It is proper to refuse the confession of one who does not perform the penance imposed by his soul-friend. If any one does not happen to find nearby a soul-friend whom he considers sufficient (that is, one learned in the rules of conduct laid down in Scripture and in the Rules of the Saints), and if the precepts he brings from the learned soul-friend whom he first met are observed, and if there be moreover some one to whom he may make confessions on each point, and if penance be done thereafter according to the rules of minor confession, it is no matter to whom his confession is made, even though it be to a student or to a young cleric.

38.There are four things for which no penance can be done in the land of Erin, namely, lying with a dead person, (i.e.: woman): transgressing with a kinswoman (i.e.: sister or daughter): falling into sin while holding higher Orders (i.e.: that of Bishop or Priest): and divulging a confession by saying 'this is what this man did.'

39.Some persons aver that the small, delicate diet is safer and better for the soul than the large coarse diet. On the Feasts of the Apostles and high Festivals and Sundays a change of diet (that is, something more delicate than other fare) is proper, rather than an increase.

40.Further, when they are thirsty, a bochtan of whey or buttermilk, with water added, may be taken. This is to be drunk is sips.

41.Any one who eats before the time, or takes such food that is not customary for him to take, must fast for doing so two nights on bread and water.

42.Privies and urinals are abodes for evil spirits. The sign of the Cross should be made over these places, and a man should cross himself when he enters them, and its is not lawful to pray in them, except to repeat Deus in adiutorium, down to festina.

43.The food that is in a house when any one dies in it ought to be blessed and distributed among the poor: because food ought not to be kept in the same house with a sick man, or eaten in the same house with a dead man, however holy he may be.

44.This is what Maelruain heard by venerable persons about deserting the country. Any one who deserts his country (save by removing from the east of it to the west and from the north of it to the south) is a denier of Patrick in heaven and of the faith he brought to Erin.

45.There is nothing that a man does on behalf of the soul of one who dies that does not help it, whether vigil or abstinence, or requiem or frequent benediction. Sons ought to do penance for their dead parents. Maedoc of Ferns and all his community spent a full year on bread and water in order to gain the release of the soul of Brandub mac Echach from hell.
46.Now if a man should desire to practise abstinence, and if it has not been his habit to subtract from his rations, let him subtract one eighth for a period of six months. What he can bear then throughout that period in point of abstinence or in foregoing part of his sleep will abide with him till his death. If he desires further abstinence, let him subtract another eighth of his rations in the same way, up to three, four or five eighths. He can bear all that amount, provided he does it gradually; also, what he subtracts by degrees from his sleep will not be harmful to him. A man however who disciplines himself severely, and whom sickness or disease distresses through his abstinence, must impose upon himself only a little additional, like a child. If he endures for six months, he will be able to bear the further imposition until death.

47.It is forbidden to bathe in polluted water, and it is a defilement for every one who pours such water upon his head. Persons in Orders whose head it touches must take care to anoint and cross themselves thereafter

48.If thou give thy ration to God and consume the other half thyself, this serves instead of a fast.

49.When disease attacks a pregnant woman so that she is near to death, the Baptismal service is read aloud over water, and the woman makes confession on behalf of her unborn child, and the name of Flann or Cellach is given to it (each of these names being common to man or woman), and let the mother drink the water, so that it passes over the child, and this constitutes Baptism for it.

50.During the monthly sickness of daughters of the Church, they are excused from vigils, morning and evening, so long as it lasts, and gruel is to made for them at Terce, at what ever time this happens, because it is right that this sickness should have attention. They do not attend Communion in such case, for they are unclean at these times.

51.Food that is brought from a distance on a Sunday as an offering to anyone, it is not lawful for him to eat, but he should distribute it among the poor.

52.The castigation of Sunday evening is administered on Saturday at the hour of Nones.

53.Tonsure is regularly performed once a month, on a Thursday.

54.Tithes are collected in this way. Every animal that a man owns is let out through a gap, and every tenth beast is given to God, except only oxen: because every tenth cartload of [the fruit of] their labour is taken.

55.Three profitable things in the day: prayer, labour and study: or it may be teaching or writing or sewing clothes, or any other profitable work that he can do; so that none be idle, as the Lord has said: 'Thou shalt not appear in my sight empty.'

56.Do not eat till thou be hungry: do not sleep till thou be ready for it: speak to none till there be cause.

57.The free tenure of the Church of God, in return for Baptism, and Communion and intercessory prayer, with boys for study and with the sacrifice of the Body of Christ on every altar. Churchmen have no claim to tithes, nor to the heriot cow, nor to the third that belongs to the patron's church, nor to compensation for valuables, unless the church provides its proper equivalents in Baptism and Communion and intercessory prayer for her tenant both living and dead, and unless there be sacrifice upon the altar on Sundays and high-days, and every altar have its complete furniture. Any church which has not its proper provision [of equipment and services] has not claim to the full compensation due to a church of God; but the name that Christ gives it is 'a den of thieves and robbers'.

58.In any church, moreover, in which there is an ordained Priest from the minor churches of the laity, he has the claim to the stipend of his Orders, namely a house and garth and bed and a habit every year, so far as shall be in the power of the church, a sack [of seed-corn] with its yield, a cow in milk every quarter, and every reasonable demand of his generally. On his part again, the rites of Baptism and Communion (that is the Sacrament) and intercessory prayer for the living and the dead, and Mass every Sunday and every chief high-day and every chief Festival: celebration of all the canonical hours, and chanting of the hundred and fifty Psalms daily, unless hindered by teaching or hearing confessions. Any ordained Priest, therefore, who has no lawful title nor knowledge to discharge the duties of his Orders so that he is incompetent to celebrate the Hours and the Mass in the presence of kings and Bishops, has no claim to the privileges of an ordained priest in state or in church.

59.Any Bishop, therefore, who confers higher Orders on any one who is not capable of exercising them, both as to piety and learning, and as to hearing confessions, and as to knowledge of law and rule, and appropriate remedies for every sort of sin, -- that Bishop is culpable before God and man, for what he has done is an affront to Christ and to his Church. Let him, therefore, do six years' penance, and let him give seven cumals of gold as satisfaction to the Creator as well.

60.Therefore it lies upon the souls of the men of Erin by the commandment of Patrick, that there be a chief Bishop to every chief state in Erin, for ordaining men to holy Order, for consecrating churches, for receiving confession from kings and eranaghs and priests in Orders, for hallowing and blessing their children after Baptism, for appointing the labours of every church, and setting boys and girls to study and piety: for if the boys do not study at all seasons the whole Church will die, and there will be no belief, but black paganism in the land of Erin.

61.If any one therefore shall offer the tithe [of the fruits] of his body to God for the purpose of study, it will be the same as if he renovated the churches of Erin and restored its belief after it had vanished. Whereas is any one withdraws his son from study after offering him to God and to Patrick, it is as if he should revoke the offerings of the whole world and violate the Church of Heaven and earth.

62.Any one, moreover, with whom the boys study who are thus offered to God and to Patrick has a claim to reward and fee at the proper seasons, namely, a mich-cow as remuneration for [teaching] the Psalms with their hymns, canticles and lections, and the rites of Baptism and Communion and intercession, together with the knowledge of the ritual generally, till the student be capable of receiving Orders. A heifer and a pig and three sacks of malt and a sack of corn are his fee every year, besides tendance and a compassionate allowance of raiment and food in return for his blessing. But the mich-cow is made over immediately after the student has publicly proved his knowledge of the Psalms and hymns, and after the public proof of his knowledge of the ritual the fee and habit are due. Moreover the doctor or Bishop before whom proof in the Psalms has been made is entitled to a collation of beer and food for five persons the same night.

63.This is the most excellent of all labours, to wit, labour in piety; for the kingdom of heaven is granted to him who directs study, and to him who studies, and to him who supports the pupil who is studying. It is the duty of every one In Orders with whom these boys study to correct and chastise them and to press them to take ecclesiastical Orders forthwith, because they are being bred up for the Church and for God with a view to receiving Orders.

64.It is the duty of any one in Orders who undertakes the charge of a church to hear the confessions of that church's tenants, men, boys, women and girls. If any one will not accept the yoke of a confessor, so that his is not under the authority of God or of man, he has not claim to be given Communion, nor to have intercession made for him, nor to be buried in God's church because he has refused to be under God's authority in the churches in the land or Erin. For it is right to show reverence to ordained Priest, and to fulfill their behests, just as if they were God's angels among men; seeing that it is through them that the kingdom of Heaven is to be won, by means of Baptism and Communion and intercession, and by the Sacrifice of the Body and Blood of Christ, and by preaching of the Gospel and by building up the Church of God, and by unity of law and rule; and this is what is pleasing to God on earth.

65.Any one therefore, who violates the Church of God, that is, who buys or sells her out of greed and envy, will be selling the resting-place of his soul in Heaven, if [otherwise] he might reach it. For this is the worst bargain a man makes in the world, to sell his seat in the Church of Heaven, and to sell his soul to the Devil, and to sell his body in order to earn much hire from the churches, so that he eats the wage of his flesh before he dies. For this cause, he has nothing of his own, either body or soul or land, but all belongs to the Devil. For he who constantly violates God's church, it is God whom he violates and resists, even the man who abides not in His Commandments in the bosom of the Church of God. Through him the powers of all princes have perished, and their children and their sovereignty after them. Through him moreover, belief in the Lord has perished in states and kindreds. Through him are the doors of heaven shut and the doors of hell open, and the angels of God cease from watching over the earth, save when they come to wreak vengeance on this race of men, to wit, on wicked, prideful erenaghs, and on wicked greedy kings, who transgress the behests of Patrick, both in violating the Church and in buying and selling her, and in exalting pride and vainglory, so that their reward hereafter is in hell. But he that protects the Church of God with humility and obedience and observance of these behests of Patrick, may he receive a hundredfold in the present world and [inherit] the Kingdom of Heaven with out end! many we dwell therein for unto ages of ages.

Amen.

FINIT.



1.1. The Beati are the Beatitudes

2.The Magnificat: Luke 1:46 3.Ego vero: Psalm 69:13 to the end 4.The two Easters: The "Great Easter" was Easter Day, the "Little Easter" was the Sunday after, or Clausem Pashae or Low Sunday. 5.Lent: there were three Major Fasting periods of 40 days: before Easter, before Christmas and after Pentecost. 6.Deus in adiutorium: O God, come to my assistance: O Lord, make haste to help me. Psalm 69:2 7.Selann: In the Tallaght documents, the word implies some special indulgence in the way of food, especially butter, allowed either at certain festival seasons or to persons whose health needed it. 8.Flummery is a custard or cream made from calves-foot gelatine and oats or nuts 9.Biestings are the first milkings after a calf is born.



THE CASE OF THE DISAPPEARING FILES
(I'm posting many of these as the electronic file is going bad and I'm losing chunks of text on many files. Posting them on the blog, strips them of old formatting, and may save them. They were collected during the early days of the internet. If I can find a source, I'll add annotation. MH 11/2015)

Friday, October 15, 1999

RULE OF ST COLUMBA


RULE OF ST COLUMBA

Even if it did not quite "save civilization", Ireland was one of the monastic centers of Europe in the early middle ages. In fact the Church in Ireland was dominated by monasteries and by monastic leaders. Other Irish monks became missionaries and converted much of Northern Europe St. Columba (521 -597) and his followers converted Scotland and much of northern England. Columba did not leave a written rule. But the following rule, attributed to him, was set down much later. I does reflects the spirit of early Irish Monasticism. 


•Be alone in a separate place near a chief city, if thy conscience is not prepared to be in common with the crowd. 

•Be always naked in imitation of Christ and the Evangelists. 

•Whatsoever little or much thou possessest of anything, whether clothing, or food, or drink, let it be at the command of the senior and at his disposal, for it is not befitting a religious to have any distinction of property with his own free brother. 

•Let a fast place, with one door, enclose thee. 

•A few religious men to converse with thee of God and his Testament; to visit thee on days of solemnity; to strengthen thee in the Testaments of God, and the narratives of the Scriptures. 

•A person too who would talk with thee in idle words, or of the world; or who murmurs at what he cannot remedy or prevent, but who would distress thee more should he be a tattler between friends and foes, thou shalt not admit him to thee, but at once give him thy benediction should he deserve it. 

•Let thy servant be a discreet, religious, not tale-telling man, who is to attend continually on thee, with moderate labour of course, but always ready. 

•Yield submission to every rule that is of devotion. 

•A mind prepared for red martyrdom [that is death for the faith]. 

•A mind fortified and steadfast for white martyrdom. [that is ascetic practices] Forgiveness from the heart of every one. •Constant prayers for those who trouble thee. 

•Fervour in singing the office for the dead, as if every faithful dead was a particular friend of thine. 

•Hymns for souls to be sung standing.

•Let thy vigils be constant from eve to eve, under the direction of another person. 

•Three labours in the day, viz., prayers, work, and reading. 

•The work to be divided into three parts, viz., thine own work, and the work of thy place, as regards its real wants; secondly, thy share of the brethen's [work]; lastly, to help the neighbours, viz., by instruction or writing, or sewing garments, or whatever labour they may be in want of, ut Dominus ait, "Non apparebis ante Me vacuus [as the Lord says, "You shall not appear before me empty."]. 


•Everything in its proper order; Nemo enim coronabitur nisi qui legitime certaverit. [For no one is crowned except he who has striven lawfully.] 
•Follow alms-giving before all things. 

•Take not of food till thou art hungry. 

•Sleep not till thou feelest desire. 

•Speak not except on business. 

•Every increase which comes to thee in lawful meals, or in wearing apparel, give it for pity to the brethren that want it, or to the poor in like manner. 

•The love of God with all thy heart and all thy strength; 

•The love of thy neighbour as thyself 

•Abide in the Testament of God throughout all times. 

•Thy measure of prayer shall be until thy tears come; 

•Or thy measure of work of labour till thy tears come; 

•Or thy measure of thy work of labour, or of thy genuflexions, until thy perspiration often comes, if thy tears are not free. 




From A. W. Haddan and W. Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents Relating to Great Britain and Ireland II, i (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1873), pp. 119-121.  This text is part of the Internet Medieval Source Book. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.  (c)Paul Halsall Jan 1996  halsall@murray.fordham.edu 


THE CASE OF THE DISAPPEARING FILES

This file was bitten by the ASCII bug, missing text. When I opened it, it took me to Terminal, which about describes the status of all my old files and reading material. A lot of his is more readily available on the internet, I may make a reading list page with links. Right now, I'm just trying to save files.

I'm posting many of these as the electronic file is going bad and I'm losing chunks of text on many files. Posting them on the blog, strips them of old formatting, and may save them. They were collected during the early days of the internet. If I can find a source, I'll add annotation. Or take them down. But I'd like to be able to read them first. MH 11/2015



THE IRISH CANONS: Collection of the Tithe, c. 750


THE IRISH CANONS:
Collection of the Tithe, c. 750

The tithe was not always clearly defined. In this case the clergy appear to be taking issue with the jurists as to whether the collection of the tithe should be made only once, or once annually, and giving an explanation of what the tithe ought to be. The tithe applied to the produce of the soil and to livestock.


1. The jurists say that tithe of cattle should be offered once and on that account it will be most holy, i.e., the tithe should not be offered again. But others of the true faith aflirm that we should give tithes of living and mortal things to God every year, since every year we enjoy His gifts.

2. Also, of all fruits of the soil a tithe ought to be offered once a year to the Lord, for as it is said: "Whatever has been once consecrated to God, will be most holy in the sight of the Lord." For the tithe should not be offered repeatedly from those things, as the learned Columman has taught. But of the fruits of the soil a tenth part ought to be offered every year, because they are produced every year.

3. Also, tithes are from all living things. So the first fruits of everything, and the animal that is born first in the year should be given. For the first born of animals are like first fruits; and the first born of men and of animals may be offered.

4. Also, concerning tithes in herds and first fruits. First born are those which are born before any others are born in that year. It should be known how great is the weight of the first fruits, i.e., nine or twelve measures. Hence, the measure of the offering should be sufficient material for nine or twelve loaves. But of vegetables it should be as much as can be carried in the hand. It ought to be paid at the beginning of the summer, just as it was offered once a year to the priests of Jerusalem. But in the New Testament each would offer it to the monastery to which he belongs. And toward this would be especially charitable; of the first-born let males, never females, be offered.

5. Also, if any have less substance than the tithe they shall not pay the tithe.

6. Also, in order that all might find it convenient to offer tithes in some way to God, if they have only one cow or ox, let them divide the price of the cow into ten parts and give a tenth part to God. And so let it be done for other things....



------------------------------------------------------------------------

Source: J. P. Migne, ed., Patrologiae Cursus Completus, (Paris, 1862), Vol. XCVI, pp. 1319-1320; reprinted in Roy C. Cave & Herbert H. Coulson, A Source Book for Medieval Economic History, (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Co., 1936; reprint ed., New York: Biblo & Tannen, 1965), pp. 378-379.

Scanned by Jerome S. Arkenberg, Cal. State Fullerton. The text has been modernized by Prof. Arkenberg. This text is part of the Internet Medieval Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. Unless otherwise indicated the specific electronic form of the document is copyright. Permission is granted for electronic copying, distribution in print form for educational purposes and personal use. If you do reduplicate the document, indicate the source. No permission is granted for commercial use.

© Paul Halsall, October 1998 halsall@fordham.edu




BRIGHID OF NAMES— A TRIPARTITE LIFE




1.  Bridge- id: Bridge- it: The eedjit Sassenach 
never could wrap their alien Bearla around our sweet teanga
Once I was Bree-id, Bride of Christ, but I bridled at Bridie: undignified.
I was synonymous with God-ness far beyond the Scythian Sea.
In the Isle of the Blesséd, the tuatha called me Brigantia
and gladly I gave name to them, for were they not my children?
Once I was the triune Bríd, but men from the east stripped me 
of my sisters: Brighid of healing, whom midwives and mothers beseeched,
and bright Brighid of the Goibniu, who fanned the forge with her sweet breath.
But I, Brighid, the anvil of poetry, wrote the ranna into the numbering of years,
and was christened Naomh Brighid for my valorous deeds.
It was the coming of Padraig, or was it Palladius that separated us from ourselves.

The Daghda, the Good God of Plenitudes, was mo áthair, 
who was my mathair? Bóand of the Cows? Or Danú? I never knew.
I was a fussy child, drinking only bainne from the red-eared cow.
I was born at the ford between worlds, betwixt night and dawn, 
neither within nor without the house, ní an tigh,
wed a while to Bres, a half-Fomorii from beyond the sea...
My three strong sons fell, blessed by the song of the sword. 
It was I who keened the first sorrow ever to face Éiru.
I wanted them beside me, not in the land of the ever-young. 
Tír na n-Óg: did they not know Cill Dara was mine own?

2. In the year of the Plague, Cogitius and other monks scribed: to a slave 
I was born, swathed in a druid’s ráth near Foughart, Meath, in the year 445,
to the sweet land of of Queen Medbh, woman of honeyed thighs.
My dark father, Dubthach, sold me to another king who thought me 
too worthy a wife when I gave away sword, chariot, horses, treasury...
With my swirling cloak I claimed all his land to grass the cattle of the poor. 
Milk overflowed in my fields. I bettered the sheep, I satisfied the birds. 
It’s true, in the mortal coil, I refused marriage, even to the filidh 
who couldn’t take a joke and fled when my eye burst like a meteor.
Before battling with angels, remember the Lord is better than any poem.
The lepers and the blind loved me, for my holy wells healed their maladies.
My little speckled fish wagged his tail, cured disease, restored sight and prophecy.

Brennaín of Tra Lí, in his blue martyrdom, for seven long years went to sea.
No one to cure my headaches, or tell tales of cities of glass or leviathan islands.
Forever Navigator, he never managed to hang his wet cloak upon the sunbeams.
My jealous brother, born of two worlds between the salt water and the sea strand,
claimed the beasts of the sea loved me better than Padraig or he. By pondering
solely on God, I gentled mad horses, and soothed the voices of the waves.

With seven sisters, I founded twin monasteries beneath the oaks, 
three-quarters of a century later, the earth took me back into her womb
until the dubhgaill pirates came in longships to our clement shores. 
I was smuggled to Dún Padraig with Colum Cille and Padraig, 
500 years we slept, blissfully forgotten. How the Uí Neill fought over him
but we never rose up against them. No separation of marrow from bone.
We had but one heart and one mind between us. 
On the eve of the Conquest, it was Maolachi who found us. 

3.  At Bath, Caesar called me his wise Minerva: patron of arts and crafts,
but he never knew I was also Sulis, and her sister of the lost names.
Bélsima (most brilliant I was then), then, from across the sea, they came
renamed my Féis Dé, Candlemas, but I was still a woman of sudden flame.
Ah, Imbolc, the sweet milking for the lambs on the first day of Earrach.
It was I who divided the year into two lovers: Samhain and Gemredh.
In the first paragraph of paradise, I was shaper of the land, consort of kings.

Dear Cormac in his Glossary wrote: I usurped “ a goddess 
whom the bards worshipped, for great and noble was her perfection.”
He was right, you know, my name was synonymous with Goddess.
19 of my cailleacha kept my fires lit with their breath until the 1200th year.
That Welsh monk Gerald said there was a matter of a hedge no man could cross.
Plenty came to visit. The only thing that drove them mad was their fear of desire.
That’s why I sent the kestrel to the spires of Kildare when her breeding was done.
And that bit about the nuns: As if I needed reminding to mind my own fire!
He never recognized me as his St. Ffraid of Wales, Angle-land, and beyond.

It wasn’t Ibor who conferred me to the veil, 
it was Mel, so intoxicated by my presence so near, 
that he read the ritual for ordaining a bishop over me.
I was second only to Ticfa Padraig; I kept my monks in food and beer.
Silly things drank my bath water from Maundy Thursday to Low Sunday
before they realized it wasn’t ale. They who called me Mary of the Gael!
Once I fed the dog the bishop’s dinner; meat was back on the bone by supper.
The multitudes I fed from that same haunch! Go leor. Emough and plenty.
But a sleighty fox stole the bone. I sent him packing to a king’s court 
to beg for tricks like a hound a year and a day. To every dog its bone...
Everything I put my hand to received a threefold increase. 
As a child, I gleaned three yields of milk from my cows, 
and the butter! I filled the dairy with it to impress a stranger.
But to the vain woman bearing me gifts of pride-apples, 
I gave her fruitless trees as a token of my gratitude.

How I miss my bishop, Conleth, the metal-smith, falsely accused 
of fathering a child, but it was Brón, (sorrow’s patronage parenthetically abused.)
I bade the newborn speak the name of his father, Brón, he mewed. 
Did I not reside over His birth, did my sisters not nurse the Holy Child,
he who was to come, God, Son and the Father, all in one, 
who was three in one, and one in three, like my sisters Bríd and me? 
I am the smile that smiles upon you from the plain...

Know you that in Ireland I have been resurrected in this third age of Man.
Born again in the perpetual fires of the last paragraph of the millennium.
Whole soldiers defend the faith on street corners, armed with plasric bullets 
and flame throwers imported from the third stanza of hell.


The Ides of Samhain, 1999
Berkeley, CA

Tuesday, September 7, 1999

Reading List: The World of the Celts; Klar



The World of the Celts; 
Prof. Kathryn Klar, Linguistics 
(Full participation/g rade/audit A)
FALL 1999: Celtic Studies 70 (4 units)

Druids. Wicker men. Bards. Warriors in chariots. Triple goddesses and warrior queens. Headhunting. Tree burials. Stonehenge (?). King Arthur. St. Patrick. "kelt" or "selt"? Ogam. The Celts. Many people--a goodly number of whom claim no Celtic ancestry at all--are fascinated by the Celts. Perhaps, however, no other ethnic group is surrounded by so much misinformation, misunderstanding, and misinterpretation. What do we really know about the Indo-European tribe which the Greeks called keltoi? How do we know it? This course is offered to help you learn something of what reputable scholars have learned about these people, and to provide you with the resources to continue to add to your knowledge after the course is over. A major theme of the course will be the nature of the evidence available to us for different periods of Celtic history, and how best to evaluate that evidence. The course will also deal such subjects as Celtic languages, Celtic Romanticism, and the modern Celtic diaspora. Grading will be based upon weekly quizzes (25% ), a midterm (25%), a final exam (50%), and regularity of class attendance.

TEXTS:
Towns, Villages & Countryside of Celtic Europe, Audouze, Françoise & Olivier Büchsenschütz
The Celts, Chadwick, Nora
The Celtic Revolution: A Study in Anti-Imperialism, Ellis, P.B.
The Celtic Heroic Age, Koch, John and John Carey
Pagan Celtic Ireland, Raftery, Barry
Pagan Celtic Britain, Ross, Anne
The Agricola, and Germania, Tacitus

Plus a reader: exerpts from  JP Mallory, In Search of the Indo-Europeans; Calendar of Coligny, Miranda Green, Sanctuaries & Sacred Places; Mythology & the Oral Tradition; St Patrick’s Hymn, The Celtic World, Proinsias MacCana; Twenty Years a-Growin, Maurice O’Sullivan;  Hallow Falr, Robert Fergusen; Prophecy of Britain, Ifor Williams; Armes Pryden Vawr & other Welsh poems; Samhain materials; articles on contemporary Wales, Welsh Patagonia, Ireland, Scotland & Brittany.


This is one of my favorite cattle call classes, a vast lecture hall, where it would be easy to sluff off, and not participate, but I was such an overeager student, Kathryn soon got to know my name, in a good way. This class really gave me the background on the Continent, and I began to fill in the gaps on what I didn't know of the classical world. In hindsight, I'd recommend being versed in the Classical World before taking this class, for maximum learning. I was handicapped. Dan Melia taught me a trick on how to store, and recall all this new info; He called it building another room in the mansion of your mind. I was hammer & tonging away with a carpenter's fury in these classes.

I sure read a lot  of material in Kathryn's classes. No wonder I had time for little else (such as poetry).



I eventually plan to transcribe my Celtic Studies class notes, so this is a placeholder. A reminder, a smack in the gob. What brought this on: I was asked to do a lecture on Celtic Bardic Poetry at Sacramento Poetry Center, and a) I was far too long gone from this material, b) I couldn't put my hands on the notes, but I at least still had some of the books. and TG for the internet. So many texts are now online (not so in 1999). I was able to reconstruct what I needed. But it was almost as bad as reinventing the wheel.   —MH 11/2015